This page lists the primary and secondary sources used in Masters of Empire. The book itself included only endnotes, and not a bibliography. So we have presented the bibliography here in case it might be useful for future researchers. 


Primary Sources

Goodman, Alfred T., ed., Journal of Captain William Trent … (Cincinnati: Robert Clarke & Co., for William Dodge, 1871; reprint Arno Press, 1971).

Grignon, Augustin, “Seventy-Two Years’ Recollections of Wisconsin,” in Reuben Gold Thwaites, ed., Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Vol. III (Madison, Wisc.: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, 1855-1911): 195–295.

Hanna, Charles A., The Wilderness Trail …, 2 vols. (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1911).

Mémoire de Canada de 1747, par Beaucours, gouverneur de Montréal, C11A, vol. 87, fol. 16.

O’Callaghan, E. B., ed., Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New-York. 15 vols. (Albany: Weed, Parsons, 1853-1857).

Peyser, Joseph L., ed., Letters from New France: The Upper Country, 1686–1783 (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1992).

Trap, Paul, “Charles-Michel Mouet de Langlade,” in Dictionary of Canadian Biography (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966). 

Secondary Sources

Adelman, Jeremy and Aaron, Stephen, “From Borderlands to Borders: Empires, Nation-States, and the Peoples in Between in North American History,” American Historical Review 104, no. 3 (June 1999): 817–23.

Anderson, Fred, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754–1766 (London: Faber and Faber, 2000).

Armour, David A. and Widder, Keith R., At the Crossroads: Michilimackinac During the American Revolution (Mackinac Island, MI: Mackinac State Park Commission, 1978).

Assikinack, Francis, “Legends and Traditions of the Odahwah Indians,” Canadian Journal of Industry, Science, and Arts new series, III (1858): 119–20.

Bellfy, Phil, Three Fires Unity: The Anishinaabeg of the Lake Huron Borderlands (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2011).

Blackbird, Andrew J., History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan; A Grammar of their Language, and Personal and Family History of the Author (Ypsilanti, MI: Ypsilantian Job Printing House, 1887).

Blackhawk, Ned, Violence over the Land: Indians and Empires in the Early American West (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2006).

Bohaker, Heidi, “Nindoodemag: Anishinaabe Identities in the Eastern Great Lakes Region, 1600 to 1900” (PhD dissertation, University of Toronto, 2006).

Bohaker, Heidi, “Nindoodemag: The Significance of Algonquian Kinship Networks in the Eastern Great Lakes Region, 1600–1701,” William and Mary Quarterly 63, no. 1 (Jan. 2006): 23–52.

Calloway, Colin G., One Vast Winter Count: The Native American West Before Lewis and Clark (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003).

Cleland, Charles E., Rites of Conquest: The History and Culture of Michigan’s Native Americans (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1992).

Clifton, James A., Cornell, George L., and M. McClurken, James, Peoples of the Three Fires: The Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Ojibway of Michigan (Grand Rapids: Michigan Indian Press, 1986).

DeMaillie, Raymond J., “Kinship: The Foundation for Native American Society,” in Studying Native America: Problems and Prospects, edited by Russell Thornton (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1998), 306–56.

Dessureau, Robert M., History of Langlade County, Wisconsin . . . (Antigo, WI: Berner Bros. Publishing Co., 1922).

Dunnigan, Brian Leigh, A Picturesque Situation: Mackinac Before Photography, 1615–1860 (Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 2008).

DuVal, Kathleen, The Native Ground: Indians and Colonists in the Heart of the Continent (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006).

Edmunds, R. David, The Potawatomies: Keepers of the Fire (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1978).

Englebert, Robert and Teasdale, Teasdale, eds., French and Indians in the Heart of North America, 1630–1815 (East Lansing, MI: 2013).

Fenn, Elizabeth A., Encounters at the Heart of the World: A History of the Mandan People (New York: Hill and Wang, 2014).

Fixico, Donald L., “The Alliance of the Three Fires in Trade and War, 1630–1812,” Michigan Historical Review 20 (Fall 1994): 1–23.

Hämäläinen, Pekka, The Comanche Empire (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008).

Havard, Gilles, Empire et Métissages: Indiens et Français dans le Pays d’en Haut, 1660–1715 (Paris: PU Paris-Sorbonne, 2003).

Hill, Christina Gish, “Kinship as an Assertion of Sovereign Native Nationhood,” in Brian Hosmer and Larry Nesper, eds., Tribal Worlds: Critical Studies in American Indian Nation Building Albant, NY: State University of New York Press, 2013), 65–109.

Hinderaker, Eric, “Translation and Cultural Brokerage,” in Philip Deloria and Neal Salisbury, eds., A Companion to American Indian History (Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2002), 357–76.

Hurt, R. Douglas, The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720–1830 (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1996).

Ironstack, George, “From the Ashes: One Story of the Village of Pinkwi Mihtohseeniaki,” (MA thesis, Miami University, 2006).

Kent, Timothy J., Rendezvous at the Straits: The Trade and Military Activities at Fort de Buade and Fort Michilimackinac, 1669–1781, 2 vols. (Ossineke, MI: Silver Fox Enterprises, 2004).

Labelle, Kathryn Magee, Dispersed but not Destroyed: A History of the Seventeenth-Century Huron People (Vancouver, BC: UBC Press, 2013).

Little Traverse Bay Band of Odawa Indians, Our Land and Culture: A 200 Year History of Our Land Use (printed 2005).

MacLeod, D. Peter, “The Anishinabeg Point of View: The History of the Great Lakes Region to 1800 in Nineteenth-Century Mississauga, Odawa, and Ojibwa Historiography,” Canadian Historical Review 73, no. 2 (June 1992): 194–210.

McClurken, James M., “Augustin Hamlin, Jr.: Ottawa Identity and the Politics of Persistence,” in James A. Clifton, ed., Being and Becoming Indian: Biographical Studies of North American Frontiers (Chicago, IL: Dorsey Press, 1989), 83.

McClurken, James M., Gah-Baeh-Jhagwah-Buk, the Way It Happened: A Visual Culture History of the Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa (East Lansing: Michigan State University Museum, 1991).

McClurken, James M., “We Wish to Be Civilized: Ottawa/American Political Contests on the Michigan Frontier” (PhD dissertation, Michigan State University, 1988).

McDonnell, Michael A., “Charles-Michel Mouet de Langlade: Warrior, Soldier and Intercultural ‘Window’ on the Sixty Years’ War for the Great Lakes,” in David C. Skaggs and Larry Nelson, eds., The Sixty Years’ War for the Great Lakes, 1754–1816 (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2001), 79–104.

McDonnell, Michael A., “Facing Empire: Indigenous Histories in Comparative Perspective,” in Kate Fullagar, ed., The Atlantic World in the Antipodes: Effects and Transformations since the Eighteenth Century (Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2012), 220–36.

McDonnell, Michael A., “‘Il a Epousé une Sauvagesse’: Indian and Métis Persistence Across Imperial and National Borders,” in Tony Ballantyne and Antoinette Burton, eds., Moving Subjects: Gender, Mobility, and Intimacy in an Age of Global Empire (University of Illinois Press, 2008), 149–71.

McDonnell, Michael A., “Rethinking the Middle Ground: French Colonialism and Indigenous Identities in the Pays d’en Haut,” in Gregory D. Smithers and Brooke N. Newman, eds., Native Diasporas: Indigenous Identities and Settler Colonialism in North America (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2014), 79–108.

Merrell, James H., Into the American Woods: Negotiations on the Pennslvania Frontier (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000).

Merrell, James H., The Indians’ New World: Catawbas and Their Neighbors from European Contact Through the Era of Removal (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989).

Miller, Cary, Ogimaag: Anishinaabeg Leadership, 1760–1845 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2010).

Newbigging, William James, “The History of the French-Ottawa Alliance: 1613–1763” (PhD dissertation, University of Toronto, 1995).

Pawlikowski, Melissah J., “The Plight and the Bounty: Squatters, War Profiteers & the Transforming Hand of Sovereignty in Indian Country, 1750–1774 (PhD dissertation, Ohio State University, 2014).

Peers, Peers and Brown, Jennifer S. H., “‘There Is No End to Relationships Among the Indians’: Ojibwa Families and Kinship in Historical Perspective,” History of the Family 4, no. 4 (1999): 532–35.

Peterson, Jacqueline Louise, “The People In Between: Indian-White Marriages and the Genesis of a Métis Society and Culture in the Great Lakes Region, 1680–1830” (PhD dissertation, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1981).

Piker, Joshua Aaron, Okfuskee: A Creek Indian Town in Colonial America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004).

Quaife, M. M., “Langlade, Father of Wisconsin,” Milwaukee Journal, July 25, 1920.

Richter, Daniel K., Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of Early America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001).

Richter, Daniel K., The Ordeal of the Longhouse: The Peoples of the Iroquois League in the Era of European Colonization (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992).

Rushforth, Brett, Bonds of Alliance: Indigenous and Atlantic Slaveries in New France (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2012).

Rushforth, Brett, “Slavery, the Fox Wars, and the Limits of Alliance,” William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser. LXIII, no. 1 (January 2006): 53–59.

Saunt, Claudio, West of the Revolution: An Uncommon History of 1776 (W. W. Norton, 2014).

Schenck, Theresa M., The Voice of the Crane Echoes Afar: The Sociopolitical Organization of the Lake Superior Ojibwa, 1640–1855 (New York: Garland, 1997).

Stark, Heidi Kiiwetinepinesiik, “Marked by Fire: Anishinaabe Articulations of Nationhood in Treay-Making with the United States and Canada,” in Brian Hosmer and Larry Nesper, eds., Tribal Worlds: Critical Studies in American Indian Nation Building (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2013), 111–40.

Sturtevant, Andrew, “‘Inseparable Companions’ and Irreconciliable Enemies: The Hurons and Odawas of French Detroit, 1701–1738,” Ethnohistory 60, no. 2 (2013): 219–43.

Sturtevant, Andrew, “Jealous Neighbors: Rivalry and Alliance among the Native Communities of Detroit, 1701–1766” (PhD dissertation, College of William and Mary, 2011).

Taylor, Alan, The Divided Ground: Indians, Settlers, and the Northern Borderland of the American Revolution (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006).

Thwaites, Reuben Gold, ed., The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents. 73 vols. (Cleveland: The Burrows Brothers Company, 1896-1901).

Thwaites, Reuben Gold, The Story of Wisconsin (Boston: D. Lothrop Company, 1890).

Trigger, Bruce G., Natives and Newcomers: Canada’s “Heroic Age” Reconsidered (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1985).

White, Richard, “Creative Misunderstandings and New Understandings,” William and Mary Quarterly 3rd ser., LXIII, no. 1 [January 2006]: 9–11.

White, Richard, The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650–1815 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

Widder, Keith R., Beyond Pontiac’s Shadow: Michilimackinac and the Anglo-Indian War of 1763 (East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2013).

Witgen, Michael J., An Infinity of Nations: How the Native New World Shaped Early North America (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012).

Witgen, Michael J., “The Rituals of Possession: Native Identity and the Invention of Empire in Seventeenth-Century Western North America,” Ethnohistory 54, no. 4 (2007): 639–68.

Wright, Gary A., “Some Aspects of Early and Mid-Seventeenth Century Exchange Networks in the Western Great Lakes,” Michigan Archaeologist 13 (1967): 181–97.